NEH Workshop for Teachers

NEH National Endowment for the Humanities

NEH Workshop for Teachers

NEH National Endowment for the Humanities Landmarks Of American History And Culture.

Directors Letter:


We invite you to sail back in time with us as we investigate “Empires of the Wind: American Pacific Maritime Beginnings” in a five day teacher workshop supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshop program. If you ever dreamed about sailing into the past, this is your opportunity to join a crew made up of distinguished university professors and noted historians as we navigate through 400 years of West Coast history while exploring one of the world’s greatest collections of historic vessels, rare museum gallery exhibits, and historic sites in San Diego.


The week will be spent investigating new ways of thinking about the Pacific and its role in the American story. Sixty-five years before the settlement at Jamestown and seventy-eight years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, European sailing ships were busy exploring and charting the West Coast. Long before the wagon trains moved across the plains, Americans were establishing themselves in their own seaborne empires stretching from Alta California and the Oregon Territory to China. Where are these stories? Who were the players? What were their motivations? And what legacy did they leave behind that shapes our country today?


This unique workshop is offered June 21-26 or August 2-7, 2015. Every day leading academics will conduct lectures aboard the fleet of historic landmark ships of the Maritime Museum of San Diego. The workshop culminates with an at-sea sailing adventure aboard the 145 ft. official state tall ship, Californian.

This website provides a program overview including the faculty, the venue, field trips, and information about stipends, housing, and transportation. Most important, the website will provide a link to the 2015 NEH Applicant Guidelines. Completed applications are submitted to the Project Director at the Maritime Museum of San Diego, not the NEH, and must be postmarked no later than March 2, 2015. Successful applicants will be notified of their selection on March 30, 2015, and they will have until April 3, 2015 to accept or decline the offer.

We look forward to sailing with you!
Raymond Ashley,
Project Director
President, Maritime Museum of San Diego

Susan Sirota,
Project Co-director

How to Apply

NEH Landmarks Of American History And Culture: Workshops For School Teachers, application Information And Instructions

Please review the eligibility criteria for participation in Landmarks workshops:
Click here.

Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops provide K-12 educators with the opportunity to engage in intensive study and discussion of important topics and issues in American history and culture, while providing them with direct experiences in the interpretation of significant historical and cultural sites and the use of archival and other primary evidence.


Prior to completing an application to a specific workshop, please review the project website and consider carefully what is expected in terms of residence and attendance, reading and writing requirements, and general participation in the work of the project.

NEH Landmarks workshops involve teachers in collaboration with core faculty and visiting scholars to study the best available scholarship on a specific landmark or cluster of landmarks. Workshops, offered twice in one summer, accommodate 36 teachers in each one-week session. Participants benefit by gaining a sense of the importance of historical and cultural places, by making connections between the workshop content and what they teach, and by developing individual teaching and/or research materials.


Please Note: An individual may apply to up to two NEH summer projects (NEH Landmarks Workshops, NEH Summer Seminars, or NEH Summer Institutes), but may participate in only one.

A selection committee (consisting in most cases of the project director, one of the project scholars, and a veteran teacher) will read and evaluate all properly completed applications.

Special consideration is given to the likelihood that an applicant will benefit professionally and personally from the workshop experience. It is important, therefore, to address each of the following factors in the application essay:4201sm
1) your professional background;
2) your interest in the subject of the workshop;
3) your special perspectives, skills, or experiences that would contribute to the workshop; and
4) how the experience would enhance your teaching or school service.

While recent participants are eligible to apply, selection committees are charged to give first consideration to applicants who have not participated in an NEH-supported seminar, institute, or workshop within the last three years. Additionally, preference is given to applicants who would significantly contribute to the diversity of the workshop.


Teachers selected to participate as NEH Summer Scholars will receive a stipend of $1,200 at the end of the residential workshop session. Stipends are intended to help cover travel expenses to and from the project location, books, and ordinary living expenses. Stipends are taxable.

NEH Summer Scholars are required to attend all scheduled meetings and to engage fully as professionals in all project activities. Participants who do not complete the full tenure of the project will receive a reduced stipend.

At the end of the project’s residential period, NEH Summer Scholars will be asked to provide an assessment of their workshop experience, especially in terms of its value to their personal and professional development. These confidential online evaluations will become a part of the project’s grant file.

Before you attempt to complete an application, please study the project website, which contains detailed information about the topic under study, project requirements and expectations of the participants, the academic and institutional setting, and specific provisions for lodging and subsistence.

A completed application consists of the following items:

  • the completed application cover sheet
  • a résumé or short biography with contact information for a professional reference, and
  • an application essay (no longer than two double-spaced pages) as outlined below.

The application cover sheet must be filled out online:
Click here.

Please follow the prompts; be sure to indicate your first and second choices of workshop dates. Before you click the “submit” button, print out the cover sheet and add it to your application package. Then click “submit.” At this point you will be asked if you want to fill out a cover sheet for another project. If you do, follow the prompts to select the other project and repeat the process.

Note that filling out a cover sheet is not the same as applying, so there is no penalty for changing your mind and filling out a cover sheet for several projects. A full application consists of all of the items listed above, submitted to the project director.

You must submit a separate cover sheet online for each project to which you are applying in order to generate a unique tracking number for each application. Do not copy and paste a new cover sheet.

Please include a résumé or brief biography detailing your educational qualifications and professional experience. Be sure the résumé provides the name, title, phone number, and e-mail address of one professional reference.

The application essay should be no more than two doublespaced pages. The essay should address your professional background; interest in the subject of the workshop; special perspectives, skills, or experiences that would contribute to the workshop; and how the experience would enhance your teaching or school service.

Completed applications should be submitted to the project director, not the NEH, and postmarked no later than March 2, 2015. Application materials sent to the NEH will not be reviewed.

Susan Sirota, NEH Workshop
Maritime Museum of San Diego
Education Department
1492 North Harbor Drive
San Diego, CA 92101-3309

Successful applicants will be notified of their selection on March 30, 2015, and they will have until April 3, 2015 to accept or decline the offer.

Once you have accepted an offer to attend any NEH Summer Program (NEH Landmarks Workshop, NEH Summer Seminar, or NEH Summer Institute), you may not withdraw in order to accept an offer from another program.

Project Prospectus

Day 1, begins with an opening reception orientation and a docent-led tour of the following three vessels within the San Diego Maritime Museum collections.

The Star of India, launched in 1863, is both a state historical landmark and recipient of the World Historic Ship Award. The world’s oldest active sailing ship, she is the museum’s flagship and the image of the museum’s logo.

The 555 USS Dolphin, the deepest diving submarine in the world, is responsible for many “firsts,” but is not primarily associated with any specific historic event or time frame during her nearly forty years of service. Rather, it is her unique, extreme deep-diving capability that sets her apart and has continually placed her at the forefront of undersea naval research during her entire career.

The Berkeley is an 1898 steam ferryboat that operated for 60 years on San Francisco Bay and is now a California State Historic Landmark, and a National Historic Landmark. Berkeley designed in the Victorian Age has a unique historical and architectural significance. She is the finest example of a 19th century steam ferryboat still afloat.

Day 2, begins with an opening lecture-discussion, “Sailing with Cabrillo from a Medieval World to the Modern World: How Maps Changed the World View by Changing the View of the World,” led by Dr. Ray Ashley, who specializes in the relationship between sea power and the development of the modern scientific establishment in the age of sail.  Dr. Ashley’s discussion will cover early voyages along what are today the west coasts of the U.S. and Mexico and the emerging understanding of a “Pacific world” characterized by seaborne connections across vast oceanic space and fantastic and fanciful geographical constructions.

The group will then travel to the site of the San Salvador, a replica of the 1542 ship of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, the first European to chart the West Coast. NEH Summer Scholars will tour the Native American Kumeyaay encampment, the ship building courtyard, and the many demonstration stations. They will visit interpreters from Cabrillo National Monument, which commemorates the first landing of Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. The group will then travel to the monument to take advantage of the many teacher resources it has to offer.

“First Peoples and their Cultures: Contacts between Native Peoples and Europeans: Cortez, Ulloa, Cabrillo, and Coronado,” the second lecture-discussion of the workshop, will be led by Steve Colston, Ph.D., associate professor of history at San Diego State University, whose specialties include early Mesoamerica and the Spanish Borderlands. Dr. Colston will examine early Spanish contacts with native peoples in Mexico and the Pacific Coast and lead participants on an exploration of translations of original accounts of these first contacts. The extraction of native voices from these firsthand narratives will be achieved through textual analysis, which will include the use of ethnohistorical and ethnographic analogs (for example sixteenth-century Nahua textual and pictorial accounts of the Cortez expedition). This lecture will be followed by a presentation by a National Parks Service education interpretation specialist. Workshop participants will then have time to explore the National Monument.









Day 3, “The Pacific deciphered” continues the narrative with a presentation by Dr. Jim Cassidy, who will discuss Native American seafaring and look at prehistoric migration along the Pacific Coast. Dr. Cassidy will also examine recent excavation in the Channel Islands and talk about the recently uncovered artifacts, which participants may view during the visit. They are believed to be the earliest artifacts found anywhere in the Americas. In addition, Dr. Ray Ashley will discuss the migration and navigational capabilities of indigenous Pacific peoples that allowed them to cross vast oceanic distances unaided by instruments.

Following the morning’s discussions, NEH Summer Scholars will have a presentation activity entitled “Who are the Kumeyaay?” Instructor Stan Rodriguez from the local Kumeyaay College will present a hands-on activity weaving elements of Kumeyaay language, tool making, and traditional foods.

The afternoon’s lecture-discussion begins with, “Cracking the Code of the Winds: How the Quest for Empire Devolved into the Quest to Learn the Oceanography and Climatology of the Pacific and the American West Coast” led by Professor Emeritus David Ringrose of the University of California San Diego, the author of numerous books on the history of the Spanish colonial empire. Participants will discuss how the vast Pacific Ocean initially posed a seemingly impossible barrier to finding a route to the Indies. This lecture will not only review the fundamentals of early oceanographic exploration but look at climatology in a historical perspective to help teachers make connections to current issues and the expansion of past empires.

Day 4, “The Pacific rationalized” begins with “The Voyages of the Enlightenment and the Founding of California,” a session led by Professor Kevin Sheehan, who specializes in Spanish maritime enterprise in the Pacific during the eighteenth century. This lecture will tie the Spanish decision to colonize California, more than two centuries after its discovery, to events taking place across the expanse of the Pacific and to the loss of Spain’s monopoly on Pacific seafaring to other European powers during the Enlightenment period.

Later in the day, Dr. Sheehan will discuss “California both as an Island and as an Administrative Extension Of New Spain.” Participants will investigate how imaginative geographies arose from the quest for fame and fortune on the part of European explorers. For two hundred years cartographers presented an impression of California as an island, one of the greatest geographical misconceptions in history.

NEH Summer Scholars will then take a guided history tour of Old Town State Historic Park, where a mission and fort were built in 1769.

Day 5, “The Pacific contested” will begin with a trip up to the Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcala which was the first Franciscan mission in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was founded in 1769 by Spanish friar Junipero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay Indians. NEH Summer Scholars will be led by Dr. Iris Engstrand, professor of history at the University of San Diego, who specializes in the history of the Spanish borderlands, Pacific exploration, and California. We will travel back to the museum for the first lecture discussion session, “Empires In Collision: The Nootka Sound Crisis,” which emphasizes the pivotal role played by indigenous peoples in the European quest for empire on the Pacific coast.

Our final formal lecture-discussion will be “Americans in the Pacific: From the China Trade and the Search of Furs to the Maritime Role of California in the U.S. Civil War,” led by Captain Bruce Linder, USN (ret). Captain Linder’s lecture will constitute a re-imagining of U.S. history and continental expansion from a Pacific and maritime perspective: the story of a nation drawn westward by the maritime lure of the Pacific rather than pushed westward by the continental pressures of the Atlantic world. Dr. Linder is a widely published author and historian specializing in the relationship between naval power and the development of seaport communities.

Day 6: “The Pacific remembered” Unique to this workshop will be the culminating activity which will be conducted aboard the official state tall ship, Californian, a 140-foot topsail schooner and replica of the ships that patrolled and defended the West Coast between the Gold Rush and the Civil War. NEH Summer Scholars will take an active role in sailing the ship: raising sail, standing a watch on the helm, and firing a broadside from her battery of guns. Sailing ships were the technology that linked the early modern world. They were the first large scale innovations of the modern world and first in which people, cargo, power, and ideals all traveled in the same package. The voyage on the Californian will supply experiential understanding of both the power and limitations of this once revolutionary technology. The program will conclude with the distribution of stipend and discussion.

Workshop Overview

DAY 1:

  • Docent led tour, 3 vessels within the Maritime Museum of San Diego
  • Dinner Break
  • Introduction and Workshop/Curriculum Project Overview
  • Icebreaker game: where the Wind Blows and Lifeboat
  • Registration and Welcome Reception sponsored by the Maritime Museum of San Diego Board of Trustees

DAY 2:

  • Introductions and daily workshop schedule
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Ray Ashley: “Sailing with Cabrillo from a medieval world to the modern: How maps changed the world view by changing the view of the world”
  • Travel to San Salvador build site
  • Exhibit Activity
  • Travel to Cabrillo National Monument and lunch
  • First encounter demonstration activity
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Steve Colston: “First Peoples and their cultures: contacts between Native peoples and Europeans: Cortez, Ulloa, Cabrillo, and Coronado”
  • Field Study
  • Return travel to Maritime Museum
  • Reflection and Curriculum Development
  • Conclusion and discussion





DAY 3:

  • Introductions and daily workshop schedule
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Jim Cassidy: “Native American seafaring and look at prehistoric migration along the Pacific Coast.”
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Ray Ashley: “Peopling of the Pacific, navigational capabilities of indigenous Pacific peoples”
  • Lunch
  • Presentation Activity: Who are the Kumeyaay? Instructor Stan Rodriguez from our local Kumeyaay College will present a very rare hands-on activity presentation weaving elements of Kumeyaay language, tool making and traditional foods
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. David Ringrose: “Cracking the code of the winds: How the quest for empire devolved onto the quest to learn the oceanography and climatology of the Pacific and the American west coast”
  • Reflection and Curriculum Development
  • Conclusion and discussion

DAY 4:

  • Introductions and daily workshop schedule
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Kevin Sheehan: “Voyages of the Enlightenment and the founding of California: from HMS Dolphin to the San Carlos”
  • Exhibit Activity
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Kevin Sheehan: “California both as an island and an administrative extension of New Spain”
  • Travel to Old Town State Historic Park
  • Lunch
  • Site Tour
  • Reflection and Curriculum Development
  • Conclusion and discussion

DAY 5:

  • Introductions and daily workshop schedule
  • Travel to the San Diego’s Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcala
  • Site Tour
  • Return travel to Maritime Museum
  • Lecture and Discussion by Dr. Iris Engstrand: “Empires in collision: the Nootka Sound Crisis”
  • Lunch & Bay tour aboard Pilot and Berkeley engine room tour
  • Lecture and Discussion by Bruce Linder: “Americans in the Pacific”
  • Reflection and Curriculum Development
  • Conclusion and discussion

DAY 6:

  • Introductions and daily workshop schedule
  • Museum Tour
  • Out to Sea sailing on the Californian
  • Conclusion and discussion
  • Presentation of Certificates

Pre-course Reader

The following readings will provide NEH Summer Scholars background information to help with discussion/presentation during the week.



DAY 2:

  • Wendt, Henry. “Mapping the Pacific Coast: Coronado to Lewis and Clark.” Mains’l Haul 45 (1 & 2 Winter/Spring 2009): 4-9. Click here for pdf.
  • Ashley, Raymond. “California’s Origin Story.” Mains’l Haul 45 (1 & 2 Winter/Spring 2009): 8-21. Click here for pdf.
  • Engstrand, Iris, and Harry Kelsey. “Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo and the Building of the San Salvador.” Mains’l Haul 45 (1 & 2 Winter/Spring 2009): 36-51. Click here for pdf.
  • Dening, Greg. “A Cultural Historian’s Perspective: Beaches.” Mains’l Haul 38 (no. 3, Summer 2002): 4-13. Click here for pdf.
  • Olson, Wallace M. “I can say nothing but great good of these Natives” Encounters between Spaniards and Native Alaskans.” Mains’l Haul 41: 4 & 42: 1 (Fall, Winter, 2006): 66-75. Click here for pdf.

DAY 3:

  • Cassidy, Jim. “The First Mariners of the New World.” Mains’l Haul 44 (3 & 4, Summer/Fall, 2008): 52-59. Click here for pdf.
  • Bankoff, Greg. “Depends Which Way the Winds Blow: The Shape and Pulse of Spain’s Pacific Empire, 1521-1898. Mains’l Haul 41: 4 & 42: 1 (Fall, Winter, 2006): 14-23. Click here for pdf.
  • McCarthy, William J. “The Manila Galleon.” Mains’l Haul 38 (nos. 1 & 2 2002): 4-9. Click here for pdf.
  • Richards, Rhys. “Re-Viewing Early American Trade with China, 1784-1833.” Mains’l Haul 39 (no. 2, Spring 2003): 14-19. Click here for pdf.

DAY 4:

  • Sheehan, Kevin. “Enlightened Voyages.” Mains’l Haul 45 (1 & 2 Winter/Spring 2009): 10-28. Click here for pdf.
  • Allen, Mark. “So Extended and Painful a Voyage.” Mains’l Haul 36 (no. 1, Winter 2000): 4-13. Click here for pdf.
  • Williams, Jack. “Alta California and Spanish Naval Strategy in the Pacific.” Mains’l Haul 45 (1 & 2 Winter/Spring 2009): 58-73. Click here for pdf.

DAY 5:

  • Porrua, Enrique. “Malaspina in the Pacific: Spanish Scientific Exploration in the Age of Reason.” Mains’l Haul 36 (no. 1, Winter 2000): 38-47. Click here for pdf.
  • Tovell, Freeman. “Planning for Discovery: The Career of Bodega y Quadra.” Mains’l Haul 36 (no. 1, Winter 2000): 23-37. Click here for pdf.

Site Visits

Maritime Museum San Diego


San Diego is also home to the Maritime Museum which is internationally recognized for having one of the world’s finest collections of historic vessels, all of which speak to the history of the Pacific and specifically to the history of the U.S. West Coast.

The Maritime Museum’s ship collection includes California and National Historic Landmarks: the 1898 ferry boat, Berkeley, a recipient of a National Maritime Act Save America’s Treasures Award and the 1863 bark, Star of India, recognized by the World Ship Trust as one of the few historic vessels that are important treasures of humanity and on a path toward inscription as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition, the Maritime Museum also owns and operates full-sized replica ships which speak to the Pacific of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Optional tour of the Maritime Museum will be on Day 1, Sunday prior to orientation.

Cabrillo National Monument


Cabrillo National Monument, established in 1913, commemorates Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo’s 1542 voyage of discovery in which the first European expedition to explore what is now the west coast of the United States was settled.

Cabrillo departed from the port of Navidad, Mexico, on June 27, 1542. Three months later he arrived at “a very good enclosed port.” That port is known today as San Diego bay. Historians believe he anchored his flagship, the San Salvador, on Point Loma’s east shore near Cabrillo National Monument. Cabrillo later died during the expedition, but his crew pushed on, possibly as far north as Oregon, before thrashing winter storms forced them to back to Mexico. The National Monument operated by the National Park Service exhibits a museum gallery, a theater, historic light house, tide pools and extensive hiking trails and book store.

Participants will tour the site and have a living history ranger talk.
Cabrillo National Monument

Old Town State Historic Park


In 1542 the Spanish first came to what is now San Diego, but settlement did not start until 1769. “Old Town” is the site of the first settlement.

In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain, and along with it, California. In 1848 the Mexican War saw the annexation of California to the United States.  From about 1868, San Diego’s “New Town” began to be built in what is now downtown San Diego. This led to a general decline of Old Town up until 1969 –the 200th anniversary of San Diego– when the city’s Bicentennial celebration returned Old Town to the public eye, and to the heart of San Diego.

Participants will tour the site and have a living history ranger talk.
Old Town State Historic Park

Mission San Diego de Alcalá


First of the 21 missions and known as the Mother of the Missions, Mission San Diego de Alcala was founded on July 16, 1769 by Blessed Junipero Serra.

Founded in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay Indians. The mission and the surrounding area were named for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego. The mission was the site of the first Christian burial in Alta California. Father Luís Jayme, “California’s First Christian Martyr,” lies entombed beneath the chancel floor. The current church is the fourth to stand on this location. The Mission is a National Historic Landmark. The Mission today is an active Catholic Parish in the Diocese of San Diego.

Participants will have a faculty led tour.
Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá

Workshop Faculty

Program Director – Raymond E. Ashley, Ph.D. is the President and CEO of the Maritime Museum of San Diego and a long time member of the maritime community. Dr. Ashley came to his present position in 1996 following a career that includes experience in ship preservation, conservation, shipbuilding, historical scholarship, publication and teaching at the university and community college levels. Dr. Ashley is a licensed shipmaster with sixty thousand miles of open ocean experience in command of a variety of vessels and rigs. He has sailed on Star of India as navigator for 21 of her modern voyages. He received a BA in anthropology from the University of California at San Diego, an MA in maritime history and underwater research from East Carolina University, and a Ph.D. in the history of science and technology from Duke University. Dr. Ashley received the 1994 Lothrop Award from The American Neptune for the year’s best contribution to the field of maritime history for The Search for Longitude and is currently co-authoring a book with four other historians on the history of the American Merchant Marine.  He is also preparing to publish a work on the relationship between science and seafaring in the eighteenth century titled Longitude and Scurvy: The Problem-Solving Art. Dr. Ashley serves on the boards of the Council of American Maritime Museums, California Association of Museums, Cabrillo Festival, Sail Pacific Foundation, and the Port Tenants Association.




Stephen A. Colston, Ph.D. (UCLA, 1973) is a specialist in the history of Mesoamerica and the book culture of Colonial Latin America.  His studies have appeared in U.S., Mexican, and European journals including the American Indian Quarterly, Indiana, Tlalocan, and the Journal de la Societe des Americanistes.  A member of the Societe des Americanistes (Paris), he is currently working on sixteenth-century Aztec tribute and land pictorial manuscripts and on Henry R. Wagner (1862-1957) as a scholar of Colonial Latin American book culture.  Colston is a retired Professor of History at San Diego State University.

Iris H. W. Engstrand, Ph.D., is a native Californian. Engstrand’s academic honors include USD’s distinguished University Professorship; the Davies Award for Faculty Achievement; Awards of Merit from the San Diego, Southern California, and California Historical Societies, Western History Association, and Orange Coast College; fellowships from the Fulbright Commission, American Philosophical Society and Huntington Library; and the California Design Award in Historic Preservation. She is a trustee of the San Diego Natural History Museum and the San Diego Maritime Museum, past president of the American Historical Association Pacific Coast Branch and of the Western History Association. Engstrand has lived and traveled extensively in Spain and Mexico and lectures widely in both English and Spanish. She has degrees in the fields of California, Mexico, Latin America and the Spanish Southwest history, biology and Spanish. Engstrand has recently been awarded the prestigious medal of the Order of Isabel la Católica (Isabel the Catholic — ruler of Spain in 1492) by Juan Carlos, King of Spain, for outstanding contributions to the history of Spain in the Americas. Engstrand is the author of 21 books and numerous separate book chapters and articles on Spain, California, and the West. Books include the award-winning San Diego: California’s Cornerstone; Spanish Scientists in the New World: The Eighteenth Century Expeditions; and William Wolfskill: Frontier Trapper to California Ranchero.

Bruce Linder is a graduate of the United States Naval Academy where he received his commission in June 1971. Mr. Linder accumulated 26 years of service in the U. S. Navy, rising to the rank of Captain. Mr. Linder joined the firm of Booz Allen Hamilton in 1997 and leads technology consulting assignments as a Principal for a variety of Government, Department of Defense and commercial customers. Mr. Linder is a widely published author and historian in naval and national security affairs with more than 40 articles published in the United States, Europe, and he has been awarded the U.S. Naval Institute’s Arleigh Burke Literary Award and was a finalist for the Naval Institute’s Colin Powell Literary Award. Mr. Linder has authored three books on naval history. His first book on the history of the Navy in San Diego, entitled San Diego’s Navy, was published by the Naval Institute Press and won the San Diego Book Award for best nonfiction book of 2001. Mr. Linder holds a B.S. degree in Physics from the U.S. Naval Academy and a M.S. degree in Oceanography from the University of Michigan. He also studied for a year as a Federal Executive Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C. and was named by President George H. W. Bush as one of his Thousand Points of Light for exemplary public voluntary service. Mr. Linder is a current member of the U. S. Naval Institute, the Navy League, the National Defense Industrial Association, the Surface Warfare Association, the San Diego Historical Society, the Coronado Historical Association, the Mariner’s Museum, the Maritime Museum of San Diego, and is a past Trustee of the Naval Academy Alumni Association.

David Ringrose, Ph. D., attended Carleton College, and then went on to the University of Wisconsin, Madison for his MA and Ph.D. degrees in History and Economic History. After spending two years in Spain on a Fulbright Fellowship, he became Assistant and then Associate Professor at Rutgers University in New Jersey. In 1974 he was invited to a position at the University of California, San Diego. There he served at various times as Department Chair, Dean, and Provost. Now Professor Emeritus at UCSD, he is active in the community, and a member of the Maritime Museum of San Diego. He also teaches part time and will be a participant in the University of Virginia’s Semester at Sea Program. Over the years he has received grants and Fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Studies, the Guggenheim Foundation, the American Philosophical Association, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton). He has published a number of books on the history of Spain and Madrid and more recently a book on Global Expansion and Interaction, 1200-1700. Currently he is working on a book about the experiences of Europeans abroad as they learned to live in distant societies prior to 1700.

Kevin Sheehan, Ph.D., received his doctorate in History from UC Berkeley. His dissertation focused on Spanish and Portuguese imperial strategies in Asia in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. He has published articles on Spanish maritime expansion in the Pacific in the seventeenth century. He also co-edited Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500-1800, published by Stanford in 2009. Kevin is curator and collections manager at the Maritime Museum of San Diego. Dr. Sheehan originally comes from Perth, Australia and now resides in San Diego with his wife and two sons.

Housing, Transportation and Directions



NEH Summer Scholars have many options for housing in San Diego to fit all budget levels. However our popular downtown location makes finding inexpensive accommodations a challenge. To help with this, the museum has arranged for a limited room block at Best Western Plus Bayside INN.

Our room block is for 12 double Queen Bed rooms that hold 2 people (24 beds). These rooms are on a first come, first served basis and are single sex only. Participants choosing this option will have their lodging deducted directly from the NEH Stipend for the full amount. This option is only available for NEH Summer Scholars and is only reserved through the Maritime Museum of San Diego.

Session I: $62.00 per night plus tax. All rates are subject to 10.5% city tax + 2% Tourism Assessment Fee. Check in 3:00pm Sunday June 21, and Check out is 12:00 noon on Friday June 26, 2015

Session II: $68.00 per night plus tax. All rates are subject to 10.5% city tax + 2% Tourism Assessment Fee. Check in 3:00pm Sunday August 2, and Check out is 12:00 noon on Friday August 7, 2015

Best Western Plus Bayside INN – 555 West Ash Street, San Diego, CA 92101 Google map; Phone (619) 233-7500

The hotel’s ideally located in downtown San Diego, and is a 10 minute walk to the Maritime Museum. The room rate includes breakfast at the downstairs café. Participants can call the hotel for a courtesy airport shuttle.

Participants requiring their own private accommodations, additional length of stay in San Diego, or additional beds can book private rooms directly with the hotel. Call ASAP for best rates.

For the most modest and economical option, 500 West Hotel/Hostel is located within walking distance of the Museum and can be reached at 619-231-4092.

Location and Public Transportation

For transportation options, map, and nearby hotels* & motels Click here
*Note: Participants will be directly dealing with the hotel and securing their own reservations. Rates change daily and without notice.

San Diego Area Attractions

The San Diego area is home to many attractions. If you are interested in visiting other attractions, you will have to plan extra time, before or after your NEH workshop dates.

Balboa Park – The Park covers a huge 1,200 acres and it’s minutes away from downtown San Diego. We have over 85 cultural and recreational organizations here, including fifteen museums and various performing arts groups, like the Marie Hitchcock Puppet Theatre and the world-famous Globe Theatre, which presents at least 14 productions and 550 performances a year.

Belmont Park – Belmont Park has something for everyone. At one of the best beaches in San Diego – Mission Beach. Take a twist on the Giant Dipper Roller Coaster, a dip in the historic Plunge swimming pool, or a stroll through the carousel shops

Birch Aquarium at Scripps – Experience a dazzling variety of Marine life; visit an outdoor tide pool; and explore an interactive oceanographic museum.

California Surf Museum – The California Surf Museum presents standing displays of surfing equipment and photographs. Every six months it introduces a new feature exhibit highlighting one of the pioneering legends of the surfing world. The museum also retails surfing-related merchandise.

Centro Cultural de la Raza – The Centro Cultural de la Raza is a 30 year old non-profit cultural arts organization, established in 1970, whose mission is to create, promote, and preserve Mexicano/o, Chicana/o, and indigenous art and culture.  Programs include a multi-disciplinary educational component, performing and literary arts presentations, visual arts exhibits and film/video screenings.

Knott’s Soak City USA – Thirty-two water-logged acres packed with 22 of the most intense water rides imaginable — all themed to the surf woodies and longboards of the 1950s San Diego coast!

La Jolla Playhouse – The Playhouse is a not-for-profit, professional theater in residence at the Mandell Weiss Center for the Performing Arts on the campus of the University of California, San Diego.

LEGOland – At LEGOLAND kids are in charge on over 40 rides and adventures.

Maritime Museum of San Diego – San Diego’s Maritime Museum is Home of Star of India, the world’s oldest active sailing ship.

Museum of Contemporary Art in San Diego– The permanent collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, includes more than 3,000 works created after 1950, representing all media and genres: painting, sculpture, works on paper, photography, video, film, and installation.

Museum of Making Music – The Museum of Making Music is located in Carlsbad and overlooks the Pacific Ocean.  The museum’s exhibits cover 100 years of music in America, beginning in 1890. They provide a wonderful trip through five time periods which include popular music, walk-through music stores, key musical innovations, 450+ vintage instruments and dozens of historic photographs.

Museum of Photographic Arts – The Museum of Photographic Arts is one of the first and finest museums in the country dedicated to the photographic arts.  Visitors have the opportunity to view work by some of the most celebrated photographers and cinematographers in the history of these mediums.

Old Globe Theatre – The Internationally acclaimed, Tony award-winning old Globe Theatre, located in the heart of San Diego’s Balboa Park, presents musicals, comedies, classics, and contemporary drama.

Reuben H. Fleet Science Center – The Reuben H. Fleet Science Center is the place for people of all ages to get their hands on science, enjoy the world’s most dynamic films in the giant IMAX dome theatre, and blast off in the exciting motion-based simulator ride SciTours.

San Diego Aerospace Museum – The San Diego Aerospace Museum brings to life aviation’s rich heritage through a dazzling collection of over 65 U.S. and foreign aircraft and spacecraft. 

San Diego Automotive Museum – Located in lovely Balboa Park, the San Diego Automotive Museum showcases over 80 classic and historically significant vehicles from horseless carriages to 50’s favorites, from muscle cars to motorcycles–even innovations of the future!

San Diego Convention Center – Online guide to shopping, lodging, dining, attractions and recreation in San Diego.

San Diego Museum of Art – This historic museum’s renowned collections include Renaissance and Baroque masters, 19th-century European, Asian, and American art. The museum also features acclaimed international exhibitions.

San Diego Opera – Performing January through May, the San Diego Opera offers visitors brilliant productions which feature world-renowned artists.

San Diego Railroad Museum – The San Diego Railroad Museum, operated by the Pacific Southwest Railway Museum Association, is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of railroads as they existed in the Pacific Southwest.

San Diego Wild Animal Park – Opened to the public on May 10, 1972, the San Diego Wild Animal Park is a unique adventure — a zoo unlike traditional zoos — in which animals roam in entire herds and flocks, in enclosures measured in acres rather than feet.

San Diego Zoo – The 100-acre World-Famous San Diego Zoo is home over 3,800 animals of 800 different species.

Seaport Village – Seaport Village is a 14-acre waterfront shopping, dining and entertainment complex, recreating a harborside setting of a century ago.  Visitors can enjoy 59 unique shops, 4 bayfront restaurants, 13 eateries, 4 miles of walkways, and a 1/4-mile boardwalk along the bay which provides spectacular views of San Diego’s harbor.

SeaWorld – See the world-famous Shamu show, play with dolphins, see the world’s largest display of sharks, and see truly amazing animals all in this one of a kind amusement park.

USS Midway Museum – The USS Midway Museum is an unforgettable adventure for the entire family. Go to sea without leaving port!  Explore more than 60 exhibits with a collection of 25 restored aircraft. Located in downtown San Diego.

The Wave Waterpark – “The Wave” is a state of the art waterpark located in the beautiful city of Vista, California. “The Wave” was completed in 1994 & consists of 3 acres of pure aquatic fun. “The Wave” boasts four 35′ tall water slides, ranging from 87′ to 330′ in length. The park is home to the “Flow Rider” continuous waves.

To find out more about the NEH Landmarks teacher workshop, please contact the Program Coordinator, Susan Sirota, Education Director of the Maritime Museum of San Diego (619) 234-9153 x126.

Equal Opportunity Statement Endowment programs do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, disability, or age. For further information, write to NEH Equal Opportunity Officer, 1100 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20506. TDD: 202/6068282 (for the hearing impaired only).

Any views, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in Empires of the Wind: American Pacific Maritime Beginnings teacher workshop do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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